Turmoil: The Abject Life A Portuguese Alien in Elizabethan England

It is the contention of this paper that Dr Hector Nunes’ mean spirited reaction 
to William Fox’s petition to the Lord Chancellor of England Sir Christopher Hatton 
in 1588 can be attributed to the weight of financial losses and debts incurred since 
1569 In particular this paper will emphasize specific events that led to his negative 
mood in the Court of Chancery: arrest and seizure of goods in Spain; losses based on 
embargo restrictions; goods seized in the Canary Islands; monies owed to creditors; 
inability to collect outstanding debts in England; governmental actions against his 
property due to ethnic origin; and loss on the high seas These factors contributed to 
his venomous reply in Chancery when he declared that if the defendant a London 
draper currently residing in Fleet Prison for debt since 1576 "hath no goods left to 
him he would bring execution upon his body for all the said two hundred note" (1) 
Nunes was an embittered creditor Years of unpaid debts and losses had finally taken 
its toll 
In February 1570 Dr Nunes a Portuguese merchant and physician was in an 
expansive mood English merchants trading in Spain sent a petition to the Privy 
Council on behalf of his brothersinlaw Peter Freire and Barnard Luis Portuguese 
merchants They sought permission for both men to "enjoy their debts goods and 
merchandise here; the said Peter is a good friend to the English in this trouble some 
times aiding their persons and conveying their goods out of the country" (2) It was 
signed by twenty eight merchants and three future London aldermen William 
Masham Thomas Pullison and Thomas Starkey (3) 
The euphoria surrounding this petition was a temporary reprieve from reality 
On August 31 1568 Nunes went before the High Court of Admiralty seeking 2000 
pounds sterling due him from George Diaz and Patrick Gough (4) It is argued that 
Nunes’ inability to collect the money had an immediate impact on his ability to repay 
a debt of 100 pounds sterling owed to John Marsaal and John Nicholson London 
drapers He defaulted on the debt and was jailed in Marshalsea prison in 1569 (5) 
Dr Nunes’ run of losses did not end there On April 22 1569 he went to the 
Admiralty Court seeking to recover a Barbary vessel the Venus of Flanders and her 
goods seized and taken to Devonshire He claimed losses of 7000 pounds sterling (6) 
The money could have bought 7000 cart horses 
Nunes did not allow these debts to deter him from further commercial activities 
In 1570 he planned a trip to the Canary Islands with Bartholomew Bayon a Portu 
guese pilot However Nunes’ past indebtedness prevented him from purchasing two 
vessels from a man named Wilkinson Therefore he convinced William Curtys a 
London pewterer to guarantee a payment of 600 pounds sterling (7) 
The planned venture was doomed from the start because Spain had accused
Bayon of piracy in the West Indies In 1568 the Spanish ambassador Diego de
Silva sought to procure his arrest (8) His successor Guerau de Spes appealed to 
the Privy Council for aid in preventing Bayon’s planned voyage to the Canaries 
However they told him that it would be unfair to prevent "people from making 
voyages especially as they are informed that no danger will be done to Spanish 
territory" (9) 
In March 1571 Spes approached Bayon attempting to convince him not to go
Bayon agreed if he were paid 4000 ducats and was allowed to send the cargoes to 
Spain (10) But his offer was refused The Spanish government sought to punish 
Bayon and Nunes Within a month Spain took action against both of them 
On April 17 1571 King Philip II wrote to Spes indicating that he had "ordered 
the detention if possible of their ship in Ayamonte" (11) Also on August 5 1571 
the king again wrote to Spes informing him that the "necessary measures had been 
taken here in the matter of Bayon and Dr Nunez in conformity with your advices" 
He added an ominous statement that could have had a direct bearing on Nunes’ 
intelligence center: "If you think that anything could be done in Flanders in respect 
of the connections which Dr Nunez had there you will advise the duke of Alba in 
order that he may take such steps as he may consider necessary" (12) 
The voyage became a financial disaster for Nunes On November 27 1571 he 
acknowledged a debt of 2000 pounds sterling to Curtys (13) Prompt repayment was 
not possible because of his extensive losses in the ill fated venture with Bayon This 
contention is supported by the testimony of Zacharye Undhall London yeoman and 
former Bayon servant In the midst of a lawsuit brought by Roderigo Lopas against 
Nunes in the Court of Chancery on April 11 1572 for unpaid debts a byproduct of 
the Bayon fiasco he stated that Nunes ventured and lost between 2500 and 3700 
pounds sterling on the voyage (14) Surviving documentation does not explain 
whether Nunes was able to resolve these lawsuits 
The hammer blows dealt by the disastrous Canaries venture came on the heels 
of Admiralty actions on behalf of Robert Christmas an English merchant whose 
ship and goods had been seized in Lisbon On February 8 1570 Lord Admiral 
Clinton issued an Admiralty warrant ordering Dr David Lewes Admiralty judge 
to recompense Robert Christmas whose ship and goods were seized in Lisbon by 
taking from "Dr Nunez out of goods and merchandise of subjects of the King of 
Portugal to the value of 530 pounds sterling 14 shillings and 9 pence" Further 
more "If these are not paid and delivered to Robert Christmas within three 
months Hector Nunez wherever he may be and kept in safe custody until the
530 pounds 14 shillings and 9 pence is paid" (15) Although surviving records 
do not indicate if he was imprisoned I would suggest that he was held hostage 
until full payment was made by Portuguese subjects resident in England 
This contention is confirmed by an Admiralty citation dated October 7 1570 
Clinton ordered Judge David Lewes to ensure Nunes’ appearance in court so that 
"merchandise in his hands or in any other subjects of the King of Portugal may be 
arrested to recompense Christmas" (16) Clinton’s actions failed On April 18 1571 
Christmas was once more in the Admiralty Court seeking compensation (17) As late 
as June 10 1575 Christmas was frantically pursuing monies owed him (18) but 
surviving Admiralty records does not reveal if he was successful 
Nunes continued commercial operations in the Iberian Peninsula despite losses 
in the Canaries and alleged seizure of his goods in the Christmas case The futility of 
these efforts can be seen in a Privy Council letter sent to Sir William Cordell Master 
of the Rolls Dr Thomas Wilson Master of Requests the Attorney General Dr 
Awbrey Judge of Admiralty Thomas Egerton and Thomas Heton governor of the 
Merchant Adventurers on December 2 1571 They were asked to examine the com 
plaints of Robert Tindale John Frampton Thomas Kinge and Dr Hector Nunes
regarding their losses The petitioners were told that once "proofes of goods con 
cealed during the time of the restraints were provided" the commissioners would 
compensate them for their losses (19) Council efforts were unsuccessful 
On January 9 1573 the Queen sent a royal directive to all her Justices of the 
Peace as well as other justices of the Common Bench seeking to provide Nunes with 
a year’s protection from his creditors (20) The directive also applied to his factors and servants but debtor protection was a failure Thus on March 25 1573 the Privy Council granted him a patent to search for "spanische goodes as have not byne 
revealed unto the Commissioners whereby he may be satisfied for such goods as were 
taken from him by the King of Spain in the Isles of Canaria" The value of the 
arrested goods was not comparable to his loss of 2600 ducats Therefore he was 
given the option of making up the difference through his own diligent search of 
goods belonging to Spanish subjects These goods were to be "valued and kept safe 
by her Majesty’s officers" (21) His efforts were fruitless The Council responded by 
sending a letter dated July 11 1573 to the Lord Mayor the Master of the Rolls and 
Dr Thomas Wilson requesting them to send for the creditors of Dr Hector and 
"intreating them to forbeare him and his suretye for two years upon such bonds as 
they have offering to pay them the principal and ten percent profit" (22) It is 
argued that Sir Francis Walsingham the Principal Secretary of Queen Elizabeth I 
Nunes’ patron at court was present when the Council met that day in Greenwich 
However I would suggest that their efforts failed in light of his imprisonment in 
Marshalsea Prison for debt in 1576 
The precariousness of Nunes’ financial situation was revealed on February 27 
1576 Robert Smythe an Essex clothier represented by Ralph Slater came to the 
Court of King’s Bench with a bill of debt Nunes owed him 33 pounds 6 shillings and 
8 pence based on a signed bond Presently Nunes was in the Marshalsea for : "many 
debts" (23) It is argued that Nunes would not have been in the Marshalsea if he had 
been able to collect a 3000 pound sterling debt owed him and a Portuguese colleague 
Salvador Nunez in the Admiralty Court on February 23 1576 (24) Furthermore even 
earlier in January 1576 he had written a desperate letter to William Cecil Lord
Burghley and Robert Dudley the Earl of Leicester requesting their aid with Lord 
Admiral Clinton He wanted them to use their influence in persuading Clinton to 
nullify his signed bond that had prevented Bayon from sailing to "any place prohibit 
ed by the Kings of Spain and Portugal" (25) In order to dramatize the urgency of his 
request Nunes revealed that one of his servants was jailed in Seville with a loss of 
1700 ducats Another servant was robbed of 200 ducats in Bilbao (26) The loss was 
approximately 630 pounds sterling 
Nunes’ letter led Burghley and Leicester to utilize the Privy Council’s influence 
in order to provide immediate assistance First a memorial was sent to the commiss 
ioners for Spanish causes on January 20 1576The lords of the Council required them 
not to make any further claim on him for "reimbursement of his proportion towards 
the restitution to subjects of the Low Countries" Nunes had claimed losses of 632 
pounds sterling and 16 shillings based on goods stayed in Spain (27) The second 
attempt occurred four days later when the Council sent a letter to the commissioner for 
the dividend and restitution of Spanish goods They sought his aid to restore goods 
taken from Nunes before the embargo between England and Spain was relaxed in 
1576 (28) The futility of their efforts became apparent on May 20 1576 Admiral 
Clinton the Earl of Lincoln sent a testimonial on Nunes’ behalf He claimed that 
Nunes should be able to receive restitution for seized goods based on his residence 
in England for approximately thirty years and loyalty as an English subject (29) 
Surviving documentation does not reveal if any goods were returned to Nunes 
On December 2 1576 the Council tried again to help Nunes They sent a 
letter to the Lord Mayor Sir John Langley goldsmith requesting him to call 
"certain arbiters before him" in order to resolve an assurance matter between 
Dr Nunes and "certain merchants of the city" The arbiters were directed to 
"give sentence or else advertise hither the cause to the contrary" (30) 
Official records do not indicate if this was successful 
Additional losses on the high seas were revealed on July 13 1579 Nunes’ 
name appeared on a list of English subjects who had been spoiled by French 
pirates since 1562 His losses were due to the seizure of the Prodigal Child 
(31) The extent of his loss was not revealed in the citation 
This loss may have contributed to Nunes’ dramatic letter to Lady Walsingham in 1580 (?) in which he sought her aid in convincing Sir Francis Walsingham to grant him a new wool patent for 10 or 12 years at the expense of Andrea de Loo a Flemish merchant (32) Nunes based his request on three factors: his 1577 wool patent (33) was unprofitable due to the "troubles in Flanders;" he had very influential friends in court including Lord and Lady Burghley; and finally his losses in Ireland totaled 2000 pounds sterling (34) Nunes felt that he deserved to receive this new patent; De Loo did not However his effort was unsuccessful 
The period between 1580 and 1583 seemed uneventful based on surviving 
documentation However this changed a year later Nunes was forced to contend 
with a "wrongful legal action" in the Court of King’s Bench brought by Richard 
Persey a London merchant (?) His action caused Nunes to write a letter to Dr 
Julius Caesar Judge of the High Court of Admiralty on October 30 1584 Dr 
Nunes complained that he had to spend money fighting Persey’s use of a writ of 
prohibition issued by King’s Bench which sought to prevent his suit from 
continuing against him He demanded that Persey "put in a bond for 3000 livres 
(pounds sterling) as security that he shall not remove the matter into any other court 
but to be tried before your honour: " (35) 
Dr Nunes did not receive any satisfaction from Judge Caesar He wrote another 
letter to him on November 2 1584 Nunes wanted Caesar to write a letter in the 
Queen’s name to the Lord High Justice and Admiral Howard on his behalf Also he 
wanted him to contact Walsingham (36) Documentation does not reveal if Nunes 
Nunes achieved his goals Furthermore it is unclear why Persey sued him in King’s 
Bench Possibly he was a creditor seeking repayment 
In 1585 Nunes had to contend with disgruntled creditors once more Horatio 
Palavicino a Genoese financier closely connected with powerful Italian banking 
firms whose family handled the Papal monopoly in alum an important element in 
English cloth production and trade wrote a letter to Walsingham on March 5 1585 
seeking his support to encourage Nunes to repay debts owed his brothers Horatio 
told him that he would "free Dr Hector of his debt and would even do more if 
commanded but this doctor has tried to get the start of me and cries out before he is 
hurt" He sought "good security in case Nunes died and his property scattered If he 
will provide this the rest shall be at his pleasure" (37) Nunes did not respond with 
any payments or the requested security It is my contention that Nunes did not feel the 
need to repay the outstanding debt since he nestled in the warm embrace of his patron 
Walsingham 
Confirmation of this contention can be found in the contents of another letter 
written by Palavicino on August 5 1585 He told Walsingham that "My brothers’ 
affairs with Dr Nunez need new favour as the last of July has passed without his 
paying anything or giving the required security" Palavicino told him that Nunes 
will not offer any repayment "unless your honour can induce him to it as I pray 
you do" (38) His letters did not result in any payment by Nunes 
Dr Hector Nunes did not possess the funds to do so Testimony given by his 
brotherinlaw Bernal Luis on November 21 1585 before the High Court of 
Admiralty clearly substantiates this contention Luis declared that "Nunes had sent 
several parcels nof commodities from England to Martyn de la Serra in Seville When 
Martyn died about a year ago "he had in his hands 626 pounds sterling and 11 
shillings for goods supplied by Dr Hector" In addition Serra received the sum of 45 
pounds sterling from "Fernandes a Portuguese in Faro for the account of Hector" 
Also Serra received from Robert Burle "pieces of tapestry which cost 30 pounds 
sterling for the account of Hector" Luis declared that these sums "still remain in 
the hands of the executors of de la Serra’s estate" (39) 
Luis’ testimony also revealed the economic impact of the embargo upon Nunes 
He told the court that Dr Hector had "60 pounds invested in Portugal 10 or 12 years 
last past which money was given to Peter Freire the witness’ brother and Nunes’ 
brotherinlaw in Lisbon However "Dr Hector is unable to recover this money" Furthermore "Last summer Dr Hector sent goods to Lisbon in the John Baptiste to Lisbon to the value of 291 pounds sterling consigned to Peter Freire who had acknowledged their receipt by letter" Freire however was unable to send goods of comparable value to Nunes in London due to the embargo between England and Spain Also Luis declared that "This summer ships have arrived in Lisbon from the Indies to the value of 300 pounds for the account of Dr Hector which are still in 
Lisbon" In summary Luis stated that in Spain and Portugal "goods and debts 
belonging to Dr Hector amounted to 1452 pounds sterling and 11 shillings" (40) 
Financial instability continued to plague Nunes in 1586 He appeared in the 
High Court of Admiralty on November 15 1586 seeking to recover 2 ½ chests of 
sugar taken from the Portuguese vessel the Fraunces by Captain Fenner Present 
ly the sugar was in the hands of William Arrowsmith He was ordered to pay 
Nunes 3 pounds sterling 13 shillings and 4 pence in restitution (41) 
The Arrowsmith case was a mild pinprick to the financial misfortunes of Dr 
Nunes in light of the devastating impact of the Red Lion of London’s voyage to 
Lisbon in December of 1586 The Nunes family had convinced London merchants 
to send goods to Lisbon in the names of Peter Freire and Bernal Luis Dr Nunes’ 
brothersinlaw Both men claimed to have received a license to export English 
goods to Lisbon despite the existing Spanish prohibition The license was issued 
by Alvaro de Bazan Marquis de Santa Cruz the head of Spain’s naval forces in 1583 He was also the architect of the Spanish Armada in 1588 
William Wilson a London cloth worker and former servant of Bernal Luis 
declared that "Lewes and Frere had favor with the Marquis de St Cruse and other 
influential men under the King of Spain" (42) These words convinced Richard 
Richard May a London merchant taylor to allegedly venture approximately 20000 
pounds sterling of cloth on the voyage to Lisbon What really happened to his goods 
remains unclear 
Testimony given by witnesses during the lengthy lawsuit initiated by May’s 
widow Mary against Mrs Elinor Nunes the executrix in the Court of Chancery 
between 1591 and 1599 concerning the voyage remain contradictory However it is 
agreed that on January 25 1587 four days before Richard May died Bernal Luis 
delivered a bond from Nunes for 4645 pounds sterling 2 shillings and 4 pence (43) 
Once her husband died she demanded an accounting and repayment When Nunes 
demurred she began legal action against him in the Court of King’s Bench on March 
20 1588 (44) It is plausible to assume that the enormity of the debt occupied his 
thoughts until he died in September 1591 
Before Dr Nunes could rest in peace he had to contend with debtors in the 
Court of Chancery on October 15 1587 and January 23 1588 The first case had 
been lying dormant since December 11 1577 Roger Norwood of Devon had acknowledged that he owed Nunes 2000 pounds sterling The debt was due to the seizure of a Portuguese vessel the Joane of Lisbon with a cargo of woad (dye) 
on the high seas by a man of war of Barnstable with letters of reprisal Freire 
testified that Norwood and other merchants had taken goods from the vessel and 
"divided the merchandise amongst themselves" Nunes advised him to have the 
men arrested and initiate a suit in Chancery to recover the goods (45) However 
Nunes not Freire began the legal process to retrieve the goods in the Court of 
King’s Bench Freire was not conversant with the language nor English law and 
procedure 
On January 10 1578 Norwood appeared in Chancery and complained that 
Nunes’ negative actions would "utterly ruin him" In particular the issuance of
writs which ordered him to appear in court to show cause why the "said Hector 
should not have the execution of the bonds" In reply Norwood declared that the 
writs had been issued in Middlesex but he lived in Devonshire Therefore he did 
not have any knowledge of them Yet he was penalized for not being there The 
court had declared that Nunes "could have execution of the bonds to levy two 
pounds" Norwood criticized the court’s actions as being against all "equity and 
reason" (46) 
According to testimony given by Dr Nunes before the Court of Chancery on 
October 15 1587 the "suit was stayed and a commission was issued by the Privy 
Council to Judge Caesar of the HCA and other doctors of civil law requiring them 
to deliberate on the case" Norwood was ordered to appear before them and to 
"take a bond for performance of any sentence that might be agreed" He refused to 
do so and was imprisoned Documentation does not indicate which prison However 
once imprisonment had occurred Norwood relented and agreed to post a bond for 
his appearance in Chancery But he appeared only once more contrary to court 
demands Nunes requested that Norwood should forfeit his bond (47) 
It is the author’s contention that Nunes was unsuccessful in his suit because 
of English prejudice against aliens Norwood appealed to those feelings in an 
undated Chancery document He declared that Nunes was an "alien who favored 
the subjects of Spain more than is convenient commenced a suit against him and 
others in the name of Peter Freire in King’s Bench and other places before com 
missioners" Norwood sought to establish the image of an alien favoring the 
the subjects of the King of Spain due to his birth in Portugal The implication being 
annexation of Portugal by Spain in 1580 caused Nunes to transfer his allegiance to 
themFurthermore Norwood argued that he had fulfilled the conditions of the bond 
and Nunes should be "stopped from further proceedings" (48) He had achieved his 
goal of painting Nunes as an alien an advocate of Spain and as a by product also 
seemed to imply that Dr Nunes was a despised Jew Ironically the picture that
Norwood had successfully drawn regarding Nunes’ alien status was patently untrue In 
1579 he became a denizen a subject of England through the actions of Queen 
Elizabeth I (49) but he did not have the rights or status of a natural born subject like Norwood 
At this point in his life an old man of 66 Dr Nunes was consumed with anger 
anger and hatred He had provided free medical treatment to Lord and Lady Burghley 
Sir Francis Walsingham Dr Thomas Wilson of the Privy Council and Sir John 
Perrott Lord Deputy of Ireland (50) In addition Nunes had conveyed intelligence 
data concerning Spanish activities in the Low Countries Portugal and Indies to 
Burghley and Walsingham since at least 1578 (51) Also he had given them evidence 
of Armada preparations in Spain in 1587 (52) Finally from late autumn 1585 to 
March 1587 he had sought to reach an agreement concerning the future of the Low 
Countries with Anthony de Castillo the former Portuguese ambassador to England 
a loyal supporter of Philip II of Spain as Walsingham’s representative (53) Yet in 
1587 the alien trump card was utilized in an English court of law to deprive him of 
monies owed since 1577 It is argued that Nunes vowed that this would not happen again 
Dr Hector Nunes did not have to wait too long to vent his anger and seek 
retribution On January 23 1588 William Fox a London draper imprisoned in 
Fleet Prison since 1576 for debt sent a bill of complaint concerning Nunes to the 
Lord Chancellor of England Sir Christopher Hatton In 1567 Fox had agreed to
pay Nunes 100 pounds sterling if his goods were lost at sea Fox was paid 7 pounds 
sterling for his insurance services Once he heard that the two vessels had sunk 
Fox hastened to sign a bond that would pay Nunes 200 marks (approximately 135 
pounds sterling) for the loss and other unpaid debts However Fox was unable to 
fully repay the total amount; only part (54) This did not satisfy Nunes Possibly 
years of court battles ensued although surviving documentation does not indicate this 
In his petition to Hatton Fox accused Nunes of being very "cruel and unreason 
able" Nunes did not have pity for him knowing that he did not have any remaining 
goods to repay the bond Dr Nunes has caused him to sink into abject poverty without 
any money for bread As a result he has been forced to "beg at the gate of the prison 
to the want of his wife and four children now ready to perish" In utter desperation 
Fox asked the court to issue a writ of subpoena that would force Nunes to appear 
before the court to answer this bill" (55) In addition he wanted the court to prevent 
Nunes from enforcing the terms of the bond that could have jailed him for life 
In rebuttal Nunes told the court that this bill has "only been exhibited for 
malice and to delay payment of just debts which have been due for the past 21 years" 
He did admit that Fox had partially repaid the existing debt Nunes however rejected 
the notion that he was too poor to repay the debt He insisted that Fox remained in 
prison solely to thwart his efforts to recover money from him Furthermore he had 
"heard it reported by men of credit and honor that the plaintiff has lands tenements 
goods and personal property sufficient to discharge the debt" Somehow he calmed 
his anger and became less belligerent Nunes told the court that he had "always been 
prepared to be honest and reasonable to the plaintiff" (56) 
On January 26 1588 Dr Nunes had a change of heart He was no longer 
willing to be flexible and sympathetic to Fox’s bill of complaint and plea Nunes 
declared that Fox possessed an "evil mind to trouble the said defendant and to 
delay recovery of his just debt: and to put him to wrongful cost charge and 
expense in the law" Therefore if the "said complainant had no goods at all left 
to him he hoped to bring execution upon his body for all the said two hundred 
note" (57) This could mean that Fox would be imprisoned for the rest of his 
natural life 
Incredulously within an instant of his verbal diatribe he changed course 
in midstream His anger dissipated Nunes proceeded to tell the court that "He is 
always willing to observe any award that the court should make but prayed to 
be discharged out of this court with his reasonable costs and charges wrong 
fully sustained" (58) 
It is my contention that Nunes curbed his anger because he knew that 
Englishmen considered Portuguese residents enemy aliens This rang true despite 
his denization in 1579 If he needed a verbal reminder the opening sentence of 
Fox’s bill of complaint described him as "hector Nunez of London merchant 
stranger: " (59) Furthermore Nunes had to cope with English hysteria concern 
ing a potential Spanish invasion of her shores He did not want to bring unwelcome 
attention to himself his wife and family In this context I would argue that public 
intrusion could have revealed the religiosity of the Nunes family (60) This could 
only result in imprisonment and torture but worst of all deportation to the land of 
his birth and the open arms of the Inquisition Therefore it is contended that this 
reality led Nunes and his lawyer to accept a resolution of the case which meant 
freedom for Fox and additional monetary losses 
Dr Hector Nunes’ predicament was an illustration of the quandary that many
Iberian Jews found themselves since the dispersion from the Peninsula Hounded by 
the Church they desperately searched for a safe haven Nunes also fled the clutches 
of the Portuguese Inquisition He immigrated to England in approximately 1546 Dr 
Nunes knew that he had to earn a living or be deported Foreign commerce became 
his livelihood In a religious context he had to secretly observe Jewish practices and 
customs Publicly he became a parishioner at St Olave’s a Protestant church on Hart 
Street in London Yet to his dismay and chagrin noted accomplishments in medicine 
commerce diplomacy and intelligence did not provide a path to increased social 
mobility nor acceptance He remained a Portuguese alien and stranger in the eyes and 
minds of Englishmen This was a source of constant frustration and anger His wrath 
came to the surface in the proceedings before Hatton However Nunes came to his 
senses quickly He hastily retreated from his severe stance Nunes feared that the 
power of the English government would come hurtling down upon him resulting in his 
immediate destruction In abject defeat he retreated hastily to the safety of his home 
and family in utter disarray Once more the inhospitable Christian world had dashed 
the hopes of an upstart Jew

FOOTNOTES

1 National Archives Court of Chancery 2 Elizabeth I f1/32 
23 January 1587/8 
2 National Archives State Papers 15/14 f 149r 1 February 1569/70 
3Alfred A Beaven The Aldermen of the City of London I & II (London: 
Corporation of London 1908 & 1913) I: 48 64 92 115 123 139 157 
192 200 208 218 338 & 344 II: 3941 43 48 173 230 
4 National Archives HCA EXEMPLIFICATIONS 15671568 
High Court of Admiralty 14/8 f 90 31 August 1568 
5 National Archives Court of King’s Bench 27/1232 n 86D 
5 February 1569 
6 National Archives ADMIRALTY WARRANTS 15651571 
High Court of Admiralty 38/7 22 April 1569 
7 National Archives Court of Chancery 4/104 m 3 
11 April 1572 
8 Calendar of State Papers Foreign Series Reign of Elizabeth 
15661569 592 # 2721 
See also: Julian S Corbett Drake and the Tudor Navy I (New York: 
Longmans Green & Co 1898) 151 
9 Calendar of Letters and State Papers Relating to English Affairs II 
Elizabeth 15681579 295 #238 
See also: Julian Paz History of Spain: Catalogue of the Collection of 
Unedited Documents II (Madrid 1931) 33 & Calendar of Letters and State 
Papers Relating to English Affairs Archives of Simancas II Elizabeth 
15681579 239 
10 Ibid 300 # 241 
11 Ibid 304 # 248 
12 Ibid 326 # 269 
See also: Historical MSS Commission Salisbury Mss XIII 205; 
National Archives State Papers 89/1 F 254 N 89 14 October 1582; 
& Calendar of Letters and State Papers Relating to English Affairs IV 
Elizabeth 15871603 326 # 331 
13 National Archives LC4/191 f 239v 27 November 1571 
14 National Archives Court of Chancery 24/104 m3 11 April 1572 
15 National Archives HCA Exemplifications 15691570 
High Court of Admiralty 14/10 f 50 8 February 1570 
16 National Archives HCA Exemplifications 15691570 
High Court of Admiralty 14/10 f 106 7 October 1570 
17 National Archives HCA Exemplifications 15691570 
HCA 14/11 f 251 18 April 1571 
See also: Elizabeth Ralph ed The Great White Book of Bristol (Bristol: 
Bristol Record Society 1979) 9192 
18 National Archives High Court of Admiralty 14/15 10 June 1575 
19 Acts of the Privy Council New Series VIII 15711575 160 
20 National Archives Court of Chancery 66/1096 m 30 9 January 1573 
See also: GD Ramsay The City of London in International Politics 
at the Accession of Elizabeth Tudor (Manchester: Manchester University 
Press 1975) 59 
21 British Library ADD Mss32323 ff 56 56v & 57 25 March 1573 
See also: Acts of the Privy Council New Series VIII 15711575 92 & 
British Library ADD Mss 48018 ff 102v/103 1575 
22 Acts of the Privy Council New Series VIII 15711575 128 
23 National Archives Court of King’s Bench 27/1264 m 79 
27 February 1575/6 
24 National Archives HCA Admiralty Warrants 15721578 
High Court of Admiralty 38/8 23 February 1575/6 
25 Calendar of Manuscripts of the Marquis of Bath C: Talbot Dudley 
and Deveraux Papers 1533 1659 (1980) 195 
See also: Calendar of Letters and State Papers Relating to English 
Affairs II Elizabeth 15681579 239 # 183 
26 Ibid 
27 Calendar of State Papers Foreign Series Reign of Elizabeth 15751577 230 # 577 
28 Privy Council Register PC 210 p 430 24 January 1576 
29 National Archives HCA Exemplifications 1576 High Court of Admiralty 14/16 n 418 26 May 1576 
See also: The Publications of the Huguenot Society of London VIII1893: 
Letters of Denization and Acts of Naturalization for Aliens in England 
15091603 ii 
30 Acts of the Privy Council New Series IX 15751577 238 
31 Calendar of State Papers Foreign Series Reign of Elizabeth XIV 
15791580 13 # 10 
32 GD Duncan "Monopolies Under Elizabeth I 15581585" Phd 
Clare College University of Cambridge August 1976 158162 
See also: British Library Lansdowne Mss 114 f 133r 1578 (?) 
Lansdowne Mss 24 ff 18r 19v20r 21r & Lansdowne Mss 38 
f 143r 1578; National Archives Court of Chancery 66/117 
m 1213 1578; Lawrence Stone An Elizabhethan: Sir Horatio 
Palavicino (Oxford: Clarendon Press 1956) 258260 & Calendar 
of State Papers Foreign Series Reign of Elizabeth XXI Part II 
June 1586March 1587 xxvxxvii 2425 40 45 5657 60 101 
103104 130 253 385 403 420421 509 520521& 545 
33 National Archives Court of Chancery 66/1151 m 24 25 June 1577 
See also: Duncan 151 
34 National Archives State Papers 12/146 f 116r 1580 (?) 
See also: Duncan 160162 & Calendar of State Papers Colonial Series East 
Indies China and Japan 15131616 67 # 157 
35 British Library Lansdowne Mss 145 ff 455r 456v 30 October 1584 
36 British Library Lansdowne Mss 145 ff 453r 545v 2 November 1584 
37 Calendar of State Papers Foreign Series Reign of Elizabeth XX 
September 1585May 1586 712 
See also: Calendar of State Papers Foreign Series Reign of Elizabeth 
XXI Part I June 1586June 1588 9091 & Stone 246 & 259 
38 Ibid 714715 
39 National Archives High Court of Admiralty Examinations High Court of 
Admiralty 13/25 ff 280v281r 21 November 1585 
40 Ibid 
41 National Archives HCA ACT BOOKS 15831586 High Court of Admiralty 
3/19 15 November 1586 
See also: National Archives HCA ACT BOOKS 15871590 HCA 3/20 nd 42 National Archives Court of Chancery 24/250 p 19 26 January 1596 See also: National Archives Court of Chancery 24/250 p 2 22 January 1596; Court of Chancery 24/250 23 January 1596; Court of Chancery 24/250 p 34 n 1 6 February 1596; British Library Egerton Mss 1512 f 44b 15 December 1593; & National Library State Papers 94/2 n71 30 September 1586 
43 National Archives Court of King’s Bench 27/1331 n 313 20 March 1588 
44 Ibid 
See also: National Archives Court of King’s Bench 27/1331 Michaelmas 367 
Elizabeth 1594 n 307 1594; National Archives Court of Chancery 33/89 
ChanceryDecrees and Order 15945 p 577 29 October 1595; National 
Archives Court of Chancery 24/250 Town Depositions Interrogatories Q 14 
January 1596 Court of Chancery 24/250 Town Depositions Interrogatories 
Q 21 1596 Court of Chancery 24/250 Town Depositions Interrogatories 
Q 22 & 23 January 1596 ; National Archives Court of Chancery 24/250 f 23 
p 6 n 22 January 1596; National Archives Court of Chancery 33/94 Chancery 
Decrees and Orders p 622 14 June 1599; James Spedding The Letters and Life 
of Francis Bacon (London: Longmans Green and Company 1890) 3233; Lucien 
Wolf "Jews in Elizabethan England" Transactions Jewish Historical Society of 
England XI 1928 20 & CJ Sisson "A Colony of Jews in Shakespeare’s 
London" Essays and Studies 23 1938 4143 
45 National Archives Court of Chancery3/ 227/72 15 October 1587 
46 National Archives Court of Chancery 3/227/72 Chancery Proceedings Series II 
20 July 1587 
47 National Archives Court of Chancery 3/227272 15 October 1587 
48 National Archives Court of Chancery 227/72 nd 
49 C 66/1176 Patent Roll 21 Elizabeth 1579 Part 2 m23 4 June 157950 
British Library Lansdowne Mss 27 f 88 n 43 23 January 1584; Ashmolean 
Mss 1441357 n 1197 ( nd); Lansdowne Mss 40/2 1584 (?); Lansdowne 
Mss 43/45 22 January 1584 (?) & Sir Harris Nicholas Memoirs of the Life and 
Times of Sir Christopher Hatton (London: Richard Bentley 1847) 340 
51 Calendar of the Manuscripts of the Marquis of Salisbury Part II (1888) 
p 206 n 605; Calendar of State Papers Foreign Series Reign of Elizabeth 
July 1579July 1580 45; Historical Manuscripts Commission Reports 
Salisbury Mss II 205; National Archives State Papers 89/1 f 254 
n 89 14 October 1582; Calendar of State Papers Foreign Series Reign of 
Elizabeth MayDecember 1582 386 # 393; Lucien Wolf "Jews in 
Elizabethan England" Transactions Jewish Historical Society of England 
XI 1928 30; Conyers Read Lord Burghley and Queen Elizabeth (New York: 
Alfred A Knopf 1960) 334; State Papers 12/204 f 3316 October 1587 & 
Calendar of State Papers Foreign Series Reign of Elizabeth XXIII January 
July 1589 34 
See also: List and Analysis of State Papers Foreign Series Reign of Elizabeth I 
II: July 1590May 1591 391 # 694; National Archives State Papers 94/4 f 15 
n 5 11 August 1591& Calendar of State Papers Foreign Series Reign of Elizabeth 
15981601 20 # 110 
52 Calendar of Letters and State Papers Relating to English Affairs IV Elizabeth 
15871603 221 # 229 
See also: 326 # 331 
53 Conyers Read Mr Secretary Walsingham and the Policy of Queen Elizabeth III 
(Oxford: Clarendon Press 1925) 125126; National Archives State Papers 94/2 
n 60 ff 134r 134v March 1585/6; National Archives State Papers 94/2 n 61 
f 136r 23 March 1585/6; National Archives State Papers 94/2 ff 155r 155v 30 
September 1586; & National Archives State Papers 94/2 n 63 f 140r March 
1587 
See also: Read 1256 & 447; P Geyl The Revolt of the Netherlands 15551609 
(New York 1958) 131 & 161; Calendar of State Papers Domestic Series Reign of 
Elizabeth September 1585May 1586 4723 ; Calendar of State Papers Foreign 
Series Reign of Elizabeth September 1585May 1586 308 4735 508 & 7125; 
Calendar of Letters and State Papers Relating to English Affairs III 15801586 
723 # 59; Calendar of Letters and State Papers Relating to English Affairs IV 
Elizabeth 15871603 221 # 229; Alan Haynes Walsingham: Elizabethan 
Spymaster & Statesman (Phoenix Mill England: Sutton Publishing 2004) 118; 
Calendar of State Papers Foreign Series Reign of Elizabeth XXI Part II 
June 1586Mar4ch 1587 384 & Stone 259 
54 National Archives Court of Chancery2/Elizabeth I f1/32 23 January 1587/8 
55 Ibid 
56 National Archives Court of Chancery2/Elizabeth I f32 16 January 1587/8 
57 National Archives Court of Chancery2/Elizabeth I f 32 26 January 1587/8 
58 Ibid 
59 National Archives Court of Chancery2/Elizabeth I f1/32 23 January 1587/8 
60 National Archives Court of Chancery 24/250 f 23 p 6 n 22 1596 See also: Lucien Wolf "Jews in Elizabethan England" Transactions 
Jewish Historical Society of England XI (1928) 9 & 20; National 
Archives Court of Chancery 24/250 p 6 n 22 1596; National 
Archives Court of Chancery 24/250 p 20 26 January 1596; National 
Archives Court of Chancery 24/250 Town Depositions Interrogatories 
Q 21 1596; CJ Sisson "A Colony of Jews in Shakespeare’s London" 
Essays and Studies 23 (1938) 4151 & Calendar of Letters and State 
Papers Relating to English Affairs IV 15871603 326 # 331

Also see: Dr Hector Nuñes Portuguese Physician and CryptoJew in Elizabethan England by Charles Meyers

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